Deep foundation construction & monitoring

Deep Foundations

Construction of structures such as metro station boxes, high rise building foundations, underground car parks and basements, water and sewer shafts and caissons typically require deep excavations and is particularly challenging within urban areas.

Deep excavations are carried out using open cut or a wide range of retaining structures such as a diaphragm-wall, retaining wall, contiguous bored pile, secant pile, sheet pile, vertical soldier pile, shaft and caisson.

Instrumentation is needed to ensure the safety of the excavation and surrounding area, protection of surrounding buildings and utilities, to verify design criteria and allow design changes in accordance with the Observational Method.


Lateral deformation of the soil
Lateral deformation of the retaining structure
Strut loads & strain
Stress of the retaining structure
Earth pressure on retaining structure
Sub-surface ground settlement
Porewater pressure in excavation and surrounding ground
Heave of the base of the excavation