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A receiver is a device which converts a radio frequency into a useable format and can be used to receive data wirelessly. They can be used in automatic data acquisition systems by linking to a central gateway such as a PC where it receives data from a transmitter.

Reed switch probe

A reed switch is an electrical switch operated by an applied magnetic field. The contacts may be normally open, closing when a magnetic field is present, or normally closed and opening when a magnetic field is applied

The reed switch probe is used to determine the location of magnetic sensors in magnetic settlement systems. When the reed switch passes through a magnetic field it closes, completing a circuit and a buzzer is activated. The elevation of the magnet target is read directly from the tape.


Resolution can be defined as the smallest increment that is capable of being read from an instrument. Resolution is normally described as a percentage of full scale (%FS). If the range is 25mm and the smallest readable amount is 0.00625mm; then

(0.00625/25) = 0.00025%

Or another easy way to describe this is the difference of a ruler marked in centimetres and one marked in in centimetres and millimetres. The resolution of the first one is one centimetre. The resolution of the second one is one millimetre.

Retaining wall

A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil when there is a desired change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose of the soil.

The most important consideration in proper design and installation of retaining walls is to recognize and counteract the tendency of the retained material to move downslope due to gravity. This creates lateral earth pressure behind the wall which depends on the angle of internal friction (phi) and the cohesive strength (c) of the retained material, as well as the direction and magnitude of movement the retaining structure undergoes.